中外谚语折射文化差异

发布:教育局  上传者:谌英   时间:2015-12-11 17:10:29   浏览:20

英语谚语

A bad beginning makes a bad ending.

不善始者不善终。 

A bad thing never dies.

遗臭万年。 

A bad workman always blames his tools.

不会撑船怪河弯。 

A bird in the hand is worth than two in the bush.

一鸟在手胜过双鸟在林。 

A boaster and a liar are cousins-german.

吹牛与说谎本是同宗。 

A bully is always a coward.

色厉内荏。 

A burden of one's choice is not felt.

爱挑的担子不嫌重。 

A candle lights others and consumes itself.

蜡烛照亮别人,却毁灭了自己。 

A cat has 9 lives.

猫有九条命。 

A cat may look at a king.

猫也可以打量国王,意为人人平等。 

A close mouth catches no flies.

病从口入。 

A constant guest is never welcome.

常客令人厌。 

Actions speak louder than words.

事实胜于雄辩。 

Adversity leads to prosperity.

穷则思变。 

Adversity makes a man wise, not rich.

逆境出人才。 

A fair death honors the whole life.

死得其所,流芳百世。 

A faithful friend is hard to find.

知音难觅。 

A fall into a pit, a gain in your wit.

吃一堑,长一智。 

A fox may grow gray, but never good.

江山易改,本性难移。 

A friend in need is a friend indeed.

患难见真情。 

A friend is easier lost than found.

得朋友难,失朋友易。 

A friend is never known till a man has need.

需要之时方知友。 

A friend without faults will never be found.

没有十全十美的朋友。 

'After you' is good manners.

“您先请”是礼貌。 

A good beginning is half done.

良好的开端是成功的一半。 

A good beginning makes a good ending.

善始者善终。 

A good book is a good friend.

好书如挚友。 

A good book is the best of friends, the same today and forever.

一本好书,相伴一生。 

A good conscience is a soft pillow.

不做亏心事,不怕鬼叫门。 

A good fame is better than a good face.

美名胜过美貌。 

A good husband makes a good wife.

夫善则妻贤。 

A good medicine tastes bitter.

良药苦口。 

A good wife health is a man's best wealth.

妻贤身体好是男人最大的财富。 

A great talker is a great liar.

说大话者多谎言。 

A hedge between keeps friendship green.

君子之交淡如水。 

A joke never gains an enemy but loses a friend.

戏谑不能化敌为友,只能使人失去朋友。 

A leopard cannot change its spots.

积习难改。 

A liar is not believed when he speaks the truth.

说谎者即使讲真话也没人相信。 

A light heart lives long.

静以修身。 

A little body often harbors a great soul.

浓缩的都是精品。 

A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.

一知半解,自欺欺人。 

A little pot is soon hot.

狗肚子盛不得四两油。 

All are brave when the enemy flies.

敌人逃窜时,人人都成了勇士。 

All good things come to an end.

天下没有不散的筵席。 

All rivers run into sea.

海纳百川。 

All roads lead to Rome.

条条大路通罗马。 

All that ends well is well.

结果好,就一切都好。 

All that glitters is not gold.

闪光的不一定都是金子。 

All things are difficult before they are easy.

凡事总是由难而易。 

All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

只会用功不玩耍,聪明孩子也变傻。 

A man becomes learned by asking questions.

不耻下问才能有学问。 

A man can do no more than he can.

凡事都应量力而行。 

A man cannot spin and reel at the same time.

一心不能二用。 

A man is known by his friends.

什么人交什么朋友。 

A man of words and not of deeds is like a garden full of weeds.

光说空话不做事,犹如花园光长刺。 

A man without money is no man at all.

一分钱难倒英雄汉。 

A merry heart goes all the way.

心旷神怡,事事顺利。 

A miss is as good as a mile.

失之毫厘,差之千里。 

A mother's love never changes.

母爱永恒。 

An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

一天一苹果,不用请医生。 

A new broom sweeps clean.

新官上任三把火。 

An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.

以眼还眼,以牙还牙。 

An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening.

一日之计在于晨。 

An old dog cannot learn new tricks.

老狗学不出新把戏。 

An ounce of luck is better than a pound of wisdom.

聪明才智,不如运气。 

An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.

预防为主,治疗为辅。 

A rolling stone gathers no moss.

滚石不生苔,转业不聚财。 

As a man sows, so he shall reap.

种瓜得瓜,种豆得豆。 

A single flower does not make a spring.

一花独放不是春,百花齐放春满园。 

A snow year, a rich year.

瑞雪兆丰年。 

A sound mind in a sound body.

健全的精神寓于健康的身体。 

A still tongue makes a wise head.

寡言者智。 

A stitch in time saves nine.

小洞不补,大洞吃苦。 

A straight foot is not afraid of a crooked shoe.

身正不怕影子斜。 

A wise head makes a close mouth.

真人不露相,露相非真人。 

A word spoken is past recalling.

一言既出,驷马难追。 

A year's plan starts with spring.

一年之计在于春。 

A young idler, an old beggar.

少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲。 

Bad news has wings.

好事不出门,坏事传千里。 

Barking dogs seldom bite.

吠犬不咬人。 

Beauty lies in the love's eyes.

情人眼里出西施。 

Be swift to hear, slow to speak.

听宜敏捷,言宜缓行。 

Better late than never.

不怕慢,单怕站。 

Better to ask the way than go astray.

问路总比迷路好。 

Between friends all is common.

朋友之间不分彼此。 

Birds of a feather flock together.

物以类聚,人以群分。 

Blood is thicker than water.

血浓于水。 

Blood will have blood.

血债血偿。 

Books and friends should be few but good.

读书如交友,应求少而精。 

Business is business.

公事公办。 

Business is the salt of life.

事业是人生的第一需要。 

By reading we enrich the mind, by conversation we polish it.

读书使人充实,交谈使人精明。 

Cannot see the wood for the trees.

一叶障目,不见泰山。 

Care and diligence bring luck.

谨慎和勤奋才能抓住机遇。 

Caution is the parent of safety.

小心驶得万年船。 

Cheats never prosper.

骗人发不了财。 

Children are what the mothers are.

耳濡目染,身教言传。 

Choose an author as you choose a friend.

择书如择友。 

Come what may, heaven won't fall.

做你的吧,天塌不下来。 

Complacency is the enemy of study.

学习的敌人是自己的满足。 

Confidence in yourself is the first step on the road to success.

自信是走向成功的第一步。 

Constant dripping wears away a stone.

水滴石穿,绳锯木断。 

Content is better than riches.

知足者常乐。 

Count one's chickens before they are hatched.

蛋未孵先数雏。 

Courtesy on one side only lasts not long.

来而不往非礼也。 

Creep before you walk.

循序渐进。 

Cry for the moon.

海底捞月。 

Custom is a second nature.

习惯是后天养成的。 

Custom makes all things easy.

有个好习惯,事事皆不难。 

Diamond cuts diamond.

强中自有强中手。 

Do as the Romans do.

入乡随俗。 

Do as you would be done by.

己所不欲,勿施于人。 

Doing is better than saying.

与其挂在嘴上,不如落实在行动上。 

Do it now.

机不可失,时不再来。 

Do nothing by halves.

凡事不可半途而废。 

Don't claim to know what you don't know.

不要不懂装懂。 

Don't have too many irons in the fire.

不要揽事过多。 

Don't make a mountain out of a molehill.

不要小题大做。 

Don't put off till tomorrow what should be done today.

今日事,今日毕。 

Don't put the cart before the horse.

不要本末倒置。 

Don't trouble trouble until trouble troubles you.

不要自找麻烦。 

Don't try to teach your grandmother to suck eggs.

不要班门弄斧。 

Do well and have well.

善有善报。 

Each bird love to hear himself sing.

孤芳自赏。 

Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.

早睡早起身体好。 

Easier said than done.

说得容易,做得难。 

Easy come, easy go.

来也匆匆,去也匆匆。 

Eat to live, but not live to eat.

人吃饭是为了活着,但活着不是为了吃饭。 

Empty vessels make the greatest sound.

实磨无声空磨响,满瓶不动半瓶摇。 

Envy has no holidays.

忌妒之人无宁日。 

Even Homer sometimes nods.

智者千虑,必有一失。 

Even reckoning makes long friends.

亲兄弟,明算账。 

Every advantage has its disadvantage.

有利必有弊。 

Everybody's business is nobody's business.

人人负责,等于没人负责。 

Every day is not Sunday.

好景不常在。 

Every dog has his day.

谁都有得意的时候。 

Every door may be shut, but death's door.

人生在世,唯死难逃。 

Every heart has its own sorrow.

各人有各人的苦恼。 

Every little helps a mickle.

聚沙成塔,集腋成裘。 

Every man for himself, and the devil takes the hindmost.

人不为己,天诛地灭。 

Every man has his faults.

金无足赤,人无完人。 

Every man has his hobbyhorse.

萝卜青菜,各有所爱。 

Every man has his weak side.

人人都有弱点。 

Every man is the architect of his own fortune.

自己的命运自己掌握。 

Every minute counts.

分秒必争。 

Every mother's child is handsome.

孩子是自己的好。 

Every potter praises hit pot.

王婆卖瓜,自卖自夸。 

Everything is good when new, but friends when old.

东西是新的好,朋友是老的亲。 

Example is better then percept.

说一遍,不如做一遍。 

Experience is the father of wisdom and memory the mother.

经验是智慧之父,记忆是智慧之母。 

Experience must be bought.

吃一堑,长一智。 

Fact speak louder than words.

事实胜于雄辩。 

Failure is the mother of success.

失败是成功之母。 

False friends are worse than bitter enemies.

明枪易躲,暗箭难防。 

Far from eye, far from heart.

眼不见,心不烦。 

Far water does not put out near fire.

远水救不了近火。 

Faults are thick where love is thin.

一朝情意淡,样样不顺眼。 

Fear always springs from ignorance.

恐惧源于无知。 

Fields have eyes, and woods have ears.

隔墙有耳。 

Fire and water have no mercy.

水火无情。 

Fire is a good servant but a bad master.

火是一把双刃剑。 

First come, first served.

先来后到。 

First impressions are half the battle.

初次见面,印象最深。 

First think and then speak.

先想后说。 

Fools grow without watering.

朽木不可雕。 

Fool's haste is no speed.

欲速则不达。 

Fools has fortune.

呆人有呆福。 

Fools learn nothing from wise men, but wise men learn much from fools.

愚者不学无术,智者不耻下问。 

Forbidden fruit is sweet.

禁果格外香。 

Fortune favors those who use their judgement.

机遇偏爱善断之人。 

Fortune knocks once at least at every man's gate.

风水轮流转。 

Four eyes see more than two.

集思广益。 

Friends agree best at distance.

朋友之间也会保持距离。 

Friends are thieves of time.

朋友是时间的窃贼。 

Friends must part.

再好的朋友也有分手的时候。 

Genius is nothing but labor and diligence.

天才不过是勤奋而已。 

Give a dog a bad name and hang him.

众口铄金,积毁销骨。 

God helps those who help themselves.

自助者天助。 

Gold will not buy anything.

黄金并非万能。 

Good for good is natural, good for evil is manly.

以德报德是常理,以德报怨大丈夫。 

Good health is over wealth.

健康是最大的财富。 

Good medicine for health tastes bitter to the mouth.

良药苦口利于病。 

Good watch prevents misfortune.

谨慎消灾。 

Great barkers are no biters.

好狗不挡道。 

Great hopes make great man.

伟大的抱负造就伟大的人物。 

Great minds think alike.

英雄所见略同。 

Great men have great faults.

英雄犯大错误。 

Great men's sons seldom do well.

富不过三代。 

Great trees are good for nothing but shade.

大树底下好乘凉。 

Great wits have short memories.

贵人多忘事。 

Greedy folks have long arms.

心贪手长。 

Guilty consciences make men cowards.

做贼心虚。 

Habit cures habit.

心病还需心药医。 

Handsome is he who does handsomely.

行为漂亮才算美。 

Happiness takes no account of time.

欢乐不觉时光过。 

Happy is he who owes nothing.

要想活得痛快,身上不能背债。 

Happy is the man who learns from the misfortunes of others.

吸取他人教训,自己才会走运。 

Harm set, harm get.

害人害己。 

Hasty love, soon cold.

一见钟情难维久。 

Health is better than wealth.

健康胜过财富。 

Health is happiness.

健康就是幸福。 

Hear all parties.

兼听则明。 

Heaven never helps the man who will not act.

自己不动,叫天何用。 

He is a fool that forgets himself.

愚者忘乎所以。 

He is a good friend that speaks well of us behind our backs.

背后说好话,才是真朋友。 

He is a wise man who speaks little.

聪明不是挂在嘴上。 

He is lifeless that is faultless.

只有死人才不犯错误。 

He is not fit to command others that cannot command himself.

正人先正己。 

He is not laughed at that laughs at himself first.

自嘲者不会让人见笑。 

He is wise that is honest.

诚实者最明智。 

He knows most who speaks least.

大智若愚。 

He laughs best who laughs last.

谁笑到最后,谁笑得最好。 

He sets the fox to keep the geese.

引狼入室。 

He that climbs high falls heavily.

爬得越高,摔得越重。 

He that will not work shall not eat.

不劳动者不得食。 

He who does not advance loses ground.

逆水行舟,不进则退。 

He who makes constant complaint gets little compassion.

经常诉苦,没人同情。 

He who makes no mistakes makes nothing.

想不犯错误,就一事无成。 

He who risks nothing gains nothing.

收获与风险并存。 

History repeats itself.

历史往往重演。 

Honesty is the best policy.

做人诚信为本。 

Hope for the best, but prepare for the worst.

抱最好的愿望,做最坏的打算。 

I cannot be your friend and your flatterer too.

朋友不能阿谀奉承。 

If a man deceives me once, shame on him, if he deceives me twice, shame on me.

上当一回头,再多就可耻。 

If you make yourself an ass, don't complain if people ride you.

人善被人欺,马善被人骑。 

If your ears glow, someone is talking of you.

耳朵发烧,有人念叨。 

If you run after two hares, you will catch neither.

脚踏两条船,必定落空。 

If you sell the cow, you sell her milk too.

杀鸡取卵。 

If you venture nothing, you will have nothing.

不入虎穴,焉得虎子。 

If you want knowledge, you must toil for it.

要想求知,就得吃苦。 

Industry is the parent of success.

勤奋是成功之母。 

It is better to die when life is a disgrace.

宁为玉碎,不为瓦全。 

It is easier to get money than to keep it.

挣钱容易攒钱难。 

It is easy to be wise after the event.

事后诸葛亮好当。 

It is easy to open a shop but hard to keep it always open.

创业容易守业难。 

It is hard to please all.

众口难调。 

It is never too old to learn.

活到老,学到老。 

It is no use crying over spilt milk.

覆水难收。 

It is the first step that costs troublesome.

万事开头难。 

It is the unforeseen that always happens.

天有不测风云,人有旦夕祸福。 

It is too late to grieve when the chance is past.

坐失良机,后悔已迟。 

It never rains but it pours.

不鸣则已,一鸣惊人。 

It takes three generations to make a gentleman.

十年树木,百年树人。 

Jack of all trades and master of none.

门门精通,样样稀松。 

Judge not from appearances.

人不可貌相,海不可斗量。 

Justice has long arms.

天网恢恢,疏而不漏。 

Keep good men company and you shall be of the number.

近朱者赤,近墨者黑。 

Kill two birds with one stone.

一箭双雕。 

Kings go mad, and the people suffer for it.

君王发狂,百姓遭殃。 

Kings have long arms.

普天之下,莫非王土。 

Knowledge is power.

知识就是力量。 

Knowledge makes humble, ignorance makes proud.

博学使人谦逊,无知使人骄傲。 

Learn and live.

活着,为了学习。 

Learning makes a good man better and ill man worse.

好人越学越好,坏人越学越坏。 

Learn not and know not.

不学无术。 

Learn to walk before you run.

先学走,再学跑。 

Let bygones be bygones.

过去的就让它过去吧。 

Let sleeping dogs lie.

别惹麻烦。 

Let the cat out of the bag.

泄漏天机。 

Lies can never changes fact.

谎言终究是谎言。 

Lies have short legs.

谎言站不长。 

Life is but a span.

人生苦短。 

Life is half spent before we know what it is.

人过半生,方知天命。 

Life is not all roses.

人生并不是康庄大道。 

Life without a friend is death.

没有朋友,虽生犹死。 

Like a rat in a hole.

瓮中之鳖。 

Like author, like book.

文如其人。 

Like father, like son.

有其父必有其子。 

Like for like.

一报还一报。 

Like knows like.

惺惺相惜。 

Like mother, like daughter.

有其母必有其女。 

Like teacher, like pupil.

什么样的老师教什么样的学生。 

Like tree, like fruit.

羊毛出在羊身上。 

Little things amuse little minds.

小人无大志。 

Look before you leap.

摸清情况再行动。 

Lookers-on see more than players.

当局者迷,旁观者清。 

Losers are always in the wrong.

胜者为王,败者为寇。 

Lost time is never found again.

岁月既往,一去不回。 

Love at first sight.

一见钟情。 

Love cannot be compelled.

爱情不能强求。 

Love is blind.

爱情是盲目的。 

Love is full of trouble.

爱情充满烦恼。 

Love is never without jealousy.

没有妒忌就没有爱情。 

Love me, love my dog.

爱屋及乌。 

Make hay while the sun shines.

良机勿失。 

Make your enemy your friend.

化敌为友。 

Man is the soul of the universe.

人是万物之灵。 

Man proposes, God disposes.

谋事在人,成事在天。 

Many hands make light work.

众人拾柴火焰高。 

Many heads are better than one.

三个臭皮匠,赛过诸葛亮。 

Many things grow in the garden that were never sown there.

有心栽花花不发,无心插柳柳成荫。 

Measure for measure.

针锋相对。 

Misfortunes never come alone.

祸不单行。 

Misfortune tests the sincerity of friends.

患难见真情。 

Money isn't everything.

钱不是万能的。 

Murder will out.

纸包不住火。 

My son is my son till he has got him a wife, but my daughter is my daughter all the days of her life.

儿子婚前是儿子,女儿终生是女儿。 

Nature is the true law.

天行有常,不为尧存,不为桀亡。 

Necessity is the mother of invention.

需要是发明的动力。 

Never fish in trouble water.

不要混水摸鱼。 

Never judge from appearances.

不可以貌取人。 

Never say die.

永不言败。 

Never too old to learn, never too late to turn.

亡羊补牢,为时未晚。 

New wine in old bottles.

旧瓶装新酒。 

No cross, no crown.

不经历风雨,怎么见彩虹。 

No garden without its weeds.

没有不长草的园子。 

No living man all things can.

世上没有万事通。 

No man can do two things at once.

一心不可二用。 

No man is born wise or learned.

没有生而知之者。 

No man is content.

人心不足蛇吞象。 

No man is wise at all times.

聪明一世,糊涂一时。 

None are so blind as those who won't see.

视而不见。 

None are so deaf as those who won't hear.

充耳不闻。 

No news is good news.

没有消息就是好消息。 

No one can call back yesterday.

昨日不会重现。 

No pains, no gains.

没有付出就没有收获。 

No pleasure without pain.

没有苦就没有乐。 

No rose without a thorn.

没有不带刺的玫瑰。 

No sweet without sweat.

先苦后甜。 

No smoke without fire.

无风不起浪。 

Nothing brave, nothing have.

不入虎穴,焉得虎子。 

Nothing dries sooner than a tear.

眼泪干得最快。 

Nothing in the world is difficult for one who sets his mind to it.

世上无难事,只怕有心人。 

Nothing is difficult to the man who will try.

世上无难事,只要肯登攀。 

Nothing seek, nothing find.

没有追求就没有收获。 

Nothing is so necessary for travelers as languages.

外出旅行,语言最要紧。 

Nothing is to be got without pains but poverty.

世上唯有贫穷可以不劳而获。 

Not to advance is to go back.

不进则退。 

Not to know what happened before one was born is always to be a child.

不懂世故,幼稚可笑。 

No way is impossible to courage.

勇者无惧。 

Obedience is the first duty of a soldier.

军人以服从命令为天职。 

Observation is the best teacher.

观察是最好的老师。 

Offense is the best defense.

进攻是最好的防御。 

Old friends and old wines are best.

陈酒味醇,老友情深。 

Old sin makes new shame.

一失足成千古恨。 

Once a man and twice a child.

一次老,两次小。 

Once a thief, always a thief.

偷盗一次,做贼一世。 

Once bitten, twice shy.

一朝被蛇咬,十年怕井绳。 

One boy is a boy, two boys half a boy, three boys no boy.

一个和尚挑水喝,两个和尚抬水喝,三个和尚没水喝。 

One cannot put back the clock.

时钟不能倒转。 

One eyewitness is better than ten hearsays.

百闻不如一见。 

One false move may lose the game.

一着不慎,满盘皆输。 

One good turn deserves another.

行善积德。 

One hour today is worth two tomorrow.

争分夺秒效率高。 

One man's fault is other man's lesson.

前车之鉴。 

One never loses anything by politeness.

讲礼貌不吃亏。 

One swallow does not make a summer.

一燕不成夏。 

One's words reflect one's thinking.

言为心声。 

Out of debt, out of danger.

无债一身轻。 

Out of office, out of danger.

无官一身轻。 

Out of sight, out of mind.

眼不见,心为静。 

Patience is the best remedy.

忍耐是良药。 

Penny wise, pound foolish.

贪小便宜吃大亏。 

Plain dealing is praised more than practiced.

正大光明者,说到的多,做到的少。 

Please the eye and plague the heart.

贪图一时快活,必然留下隐祸。 

Pleasure comes through toil.

苦尽甘来。 

Pour water into a sieve.

竹篮子打水一场空。 

Practice makes perfect.

熟能生巧。 

Praise is not pudding.

恭维话不能当饭吃。 

Praise makes good men better, and bad men worse.

好人越夸越好,坏人越夸越糟。 

Prefer loss to unjust gain.

宁可吃亏,不贪便宜。 

Prevention is better than cure.

预防胜于治疗。 

Pride goes before, and shame comes after.

骄傲使人落后。 

Promise is debt.

一诺千金。 

Proverbs are the daughters of daily experience.

谚语是日常经验的结晶。 

Pull the chestnut out of fire.

火中取栗。 

Put the cart before the horse.

本末倒置。 

Put your shoulder to the wheel.

鼎力相助。 

Reading enriches the mind.

开卷有益。 

Reading is to the mind while exercise to the body.

读书健脑,运动强身。 

Respect yourself, or no one else will respect you.

要人尊敬,必须自重。 

Rome is not built in a day.

冰冻三尺,非一日之寒。 

Saying is one thing and doing another.

言行不一。 

Seeing is believing.

眼见为实。 

Seek the truth from facts.

实事求是。 

Send a wise man on an errand, and say nothing to him.

智者当差,不用交代。 

Set a thief to catch a thief.

以贼捉贼。 

Short accounts make long friends.

好朋友勤算账。 

Something is better than nothing.

聊胜于无。 

Soon learn, soon forgotten.

学得快,忘得快。 

Soon ripe, soon rotten.

熟得快,烂得快。 

Speech is silver, silence is gold.

能言是银,沉默是金。 

Still water run deep.

静水常深。 

Strike the iron while it is hot.

趁热打铁。 

Success belongs to the persevering.

坚持就是胜利。 

Take things as they come.

既来之,则安之。 

Talking mends no holes.

空谈无补。 

Talk of the devil and he will appear.

说曹操,曹操就到。 

Tall trees catch much wind.

树大招风。 

Teach others by your example.

躬亲示范。 

The best hearts are always the bravest.

无私者无畏。 

The best man stumbles.

伟人也有犯错时。 

The cat shuts its eyes when stealing.

掩耳盗铃。 

The danger past and God forgotten.

过河拆桥。 

The darkest hour is nearest the dawn.

黎明前的黑暗。 

The darkest place is under the candlestick.

烛台底下最暗。 

The devil knows many things because he is old.

老马识途。 

The devil sometimes speaks the truth.

魔鬼有时也会说真话。 

The die is cast.

木已成舟。 

The early bird catches the worm.

早起的鸟儿有虫吃。 

The end justifies the means.

只要目的正当,可以不择手段。 

The end makes all equal.

死亡面前,人人平等。 

The eye is bigger than the belly.

贪多嚼不烂。 

The farthest way about is the nearest way home.

抄近路反而绕远路。 

The finest diamond must be cut.

玉不琢,不成器。 

The fire is the test of gold, adversity of strong man.

烈火验真金,艰难磨意志。 

The first step is the only difficulty.

迈出第一步是最艰难的。 

The fox knew too much, that's how he lost his tail.

机关算尽太聪明,反误了卿卿性命。 

The fox preys farthest from home.

兔子不吃窝边草。 

The frog in the well knows nothing of the great ocean.

坐井观天。 

The grass is greener on the other side.

这山望着那山高。 

The greatest talkers are always least doers.

语言的巨人总是行动的矮子。 

The higher up, the greater the fall.

爬得高,摔得惨。 

The leopard cannot change its spots.

本性难移。 

The more noble, the more humble.

人越高尚,越谦虚。 

The more wit, the less courage.

初生牛犊不怕虎。 

The outsider sees the most of the game.

旁观者清。 

The pen is mightier than the sword.

笔能杀人。 

The pot calls the kettle black.

五十步笑百步。 

There are spots in the sun.

太阳也有黑点。 

There are two sides to every question.

问题皆有两面。 

There is a skeleton in the cupboard.

家家有本难念的经。 

There is kindness to be found everywhere.

人间处处有温情。 

There is no general rule without some exception.

任何法规均有例外。 

There is no medicine against death.

没有长生不老药。 

There is no place like home.

金窝银窝不如咱的狗窝。 

There is no royal road to learning.

书山有路勤为径,学海无涯苦作舟。 

The style is the man.

字如其人。 

The tongue is not steel, yet it cuts.

人言可畏。 

The water that bears the boat is the same that swallows it up.

水能载舟,亦能覆舟。 

The wise man knows he knows nothing, the fool thinks he knows all.

清者自清,浊者自浊。 

The wolf has a winning game when the shepherds quarrel.

螳螂捕蝉,黄雀在后。 

The world is a ladder for some to go up and others to go down.

世界如阶梯,有人上有人下。 

The world is but a little place, after all.

海内存知己,天涯若比邻。 

Think twice before you do.

三思而后行。 

Things at the worst will mend.

否极泰来。 

Time and tide wait for no man.

时不我待。 

Time cures all things.

时间是医治一切创伤的良药。 

Time flies.

光阴似箭。 

Time is money.

时间就是金钱。 

Time lost cannot be won again.

时光流逝,不可复得。 

Time past cannot be called back again.

时间不能倒流。 

Time tries all.

路遥知马力,日久见人心。 

Tit for tat is fair play.

人不犯我,我不犯人;人若犯我,我必犯人。 

To err is human.

人非圣贤,孰能无过。 

To know everything is to know nothing.

什么都知道,一如什么都不知道。 

To know oneself is true progress.

人贵有自知之明。 

Tomorrow never comes.

我生待明日,万事成蹉跎。 

Too much familiarity breeds contempt.

过分熟悉会使人互不服气。 

Too much knowledge makes the head bald.

学问太多催人老。 

Too much liberty spills all.

自由放任,一事无成。 

Too much praise is a burden.

过多夸奖,反成负担。 

To save time is to lengthen life.

节约时间就是延长生命。 

Touch pitch, and you will be defiled.

常在河边走,哪有不湿鞋。 

Troubles never come singly.

福无双至,祸不单行。 

Truth never grows old.

真理永存。 

Turn over a new leaf.

洗心革面,改过自新。 

Two dogs strive for a bone, and a third runs away with it.

鹬蚌相争,渔翁得利。 

Two heads are better than one.

一个好汉三个帮。 

Two of a trade seldom agree.

同行是冤家。 

Two wrongs do not make a right.

别人错了,不等于你对了。 

Unity is strength.

团结就是力量。 

Unpleasant advice is a good medicine.

忠言逆耳利于行。 

Until all is over one's ambition never dies.

不到黄河心不死。 

Venture a small fish to catch a great one.

吃小亏占大便宜。 

Virtue is fairer far than beauty.

美德远远胜过美貌。 

Walls have ears.

小心隔墙有耳。 

Wash your dirty linen at home.

家丑不可外扬。 

Water dropping day by day wears the hardest rock away.

滴水穿石。 

Wealth is nothing without health.

失去健康,钱再多也没用。 

We know not what is good until we have lost it.

好东西,失去了才明白。 

Well begun is half done.

好的开始,是成功的一半。 

We never know the worth of water till the well is dry.

井干方知水可贵。 

We shall never have friends if we expect to find them without fault.

欲求完美无缺的朋友必然成为孤家寡人。 

We should never remember the benefits we have offered nor forget the favor received.

自己的好事别去提,别人的恩惠要铭记。 

Wet behind the ears.

乳臭未干。 

Whatever you do, do with all your might.

不管做什么,都要一心一意。 

What is learned in the cradle is carried to the grave.

儿时所学,终生难忘。 

What's done cannot be undone.

生米煮成熟饭了。 

What's lost is lost.

失者不可复得。 

What we do willingly is easy.

愿者不难。 

When in Rome, do as the Romans do.

入国问禁,入乡随俗。 

When everybody's somebody then nobody's anybody.

人人都伟大,世间没豪杰。 

When sorrow is asleep, wake it not.

伤心旧事别重提。 

When sorrows come, they come not single spies, but in battalions.

新仇旧恨,齐上心头。 

When the fox preaches, take care of your geese.

黄鼠狼给鸡拜年,没安好心。 

When wine is in truth, wit is out.

酒后吐真言。 

Where there is a will, there is a way.

有志者事竟成。 

Where there is life, there is hope.

留得青山在,不怕没柴烧。 

Where there is smoke, there is fire.

事出有因。 

While the priest climbs a post, the devil climbs ten.

道高一尺,魔高一丈。 

Who chatters to you, will chatter of you.

搬弄口舌者必是小人。 

Whom the gods love die young.

好人不长命。 

Wise man have their mouths in their hearts, fools have their hearts in their mouths.

智者嘴在心里,愚者心在嘴里。 

Work makes the workman.

勤工出巧匠。 

You cannot burn the candle at both ends.

蜡烛不能两头点,精力不可过分耗。 

You cannot eat your cake and have it.

鱼与熊掌,不可得兼。 (衣人注:此翻译不尽准确,仅供参考。)

You can take a horse to the water but you cannot make him drink.

强扭的瓜不甜。 

You may know by a handful the whole sack.

由一斑可知全貌。 

You never know what you can till you try.

是驴子是马,拉出来遛遛。 

中外谚语折射文化差异--之一

前两天瞄了本中英谚语的书,颇有点感触。通过谚语,不难发现自古流传下来的中西方提倡精神和反对的观点,甚至是待人接物的态度都存在明显的差异。当然这种差异并不是全部,但我搞不清楚,到底这种差异的根源来自哪里,哪一种才更先进?

当然,中英谚语中还是有许多相通的东西,例如关于人多力量大型的,中有“众人拾柴火焰高”,英有"Many hands make light work.",对于时间飞逝,重金难求,中文有“志士惜日短,一寸光阴一寸金,寸金难买寸光阴”,英文中也有"Time is money"的说法,简而言之就是出自人民群众的公认道理,在两种语言和文化中是向通的,只是中文更婉转,英文更直白些罢了。

这里我们以讨论差异为主,或许从这些差异中能挖掘写深层的东西是我的奢望,当然,能够解决我个人的小小疑问就已经很满足了~

1.中国古代是一个以农业为主的社会,所以来自明间的谚语多与农业生产相关,如百业农为本,民以食为天;春流一滴汗,秋收装一筐;农家两大宝,猪粪红花草(请教:红花草是啥?)。而英文中的民谚则多数来源于航海,船员,水手,捕捞等,如:A good sailor may mistake in a dark night.In a calm sea,every man is a pilot.等吧。或许这与他们的“出身成分”有关吧~

2.西方的古谚很多出自圣经和莎翁名著,而中国的则源于诸子(尤其是孔孟)和后来的诗词曲以及红楼等中国名著,这样是不是说中国人世世代代已经无形中成为孔孟的教徒?

3.人与神的关系方面,中国的儒佛道三教是无神或者说泛神论,他们既认为“生死有命,富贵在天”,但是又心存“放下屠刀,立地成佛”的观念,似乎人即是佛,而佛也有人的一面。但是在西方的谚语中,上帝是高于一切的"God is above all.""God is where he was."而这个上帝一会儿帮助穷人"God helps the poor,for the rich help themselves.",一会儿又去帮富人,因为"God helps the rich, the poor can beg.",总之,不管帮谁上帝都有它的道理,它永远是正确的"Truth is the daughter of the God."。西方的这种对上帝的虔诚,或许正是他们将其作为信仰来崇拜,而佛儒道对中国人的影响是潜移默化的却未表于如此形式的吧~(当然如朱熹般崇儒的皇帝也还是有的,那时儒也正如西方的宗教一般作为统治阶级的得力工具,穿上华服,怎能无功受禄?)

4.另一个有趣现象,基督教将上帝看得至高无上却主张人人平等,而人神可互化的儒佛道教却将人划分三六九等,制度森严。"We are all Adam's children.""A cat may look at a king.""A king without learning is but a crowned ass."(无知的皇帝不过是一头带着皇冠的驴子--哈哈,笑死我)。中国谚语有“官大奴也大”“小鬼斗不过阎王”“穷官强似富百姓”等,可见一斑。

5.许多英文中的谚语主张即是行乐“Eat drink and be merry,for tomorrow we die.”,强调个人的自由和价值“Everyone for himself and let the devil take the hindmost.”,这与中国传统思想力的禁欲隐忍,为大我牺牲小我,以及严己宽人的思想也是相悖的。而中国在“己所不欲,勿施于人”“将心比心,便是佛心”“国家国家,没有国哪有家”的教诲下成长,因此面对战争时,中国人从不贬斥战争,而是勇于为国捐躯“勇将不怯死,壮士不毁节”,西方人在这种情况下真是牢骚满腹"put the heads of the states in a field and let them fight it out."。我真不知该对我们的勇士们致以崇敬还是同情,如果不是这种愚忠从比干到岳飞杨家将都不会惨死奸人之手,但如果不是无数英烈的这种顽固的坚持,谁又知道今天会是如何境地?

中外谚语折射文化差异--之二

1.反映宗教的原罪说:在英语中有一些关于罪的谚语,如Our sins and our debts are often more than we think.我们的罪和债远比我们想像的要多。而儒家则认为人之初,性本善。因此也就出现了人性本善还是人性本恶的差别。基督坚持原罪说,《圣经·出埃及记》中有The sins of the fathers are visited upon the children.父辈的罪孽,会殃及子孙。中国的佛教则持佛性说,认为人的罪是由于逆境引起的恶意而犯下的,是难以饶恕的,所以有,天作孽,犹可为,自作孽,不可活。让人想到了95(?)狮城辩论赛的主题,善花是如何结出恶果的一问?铺展开来,我认为佛心佛面下,包裹的是什么?是恶的种子,一旦外界条件成熟,它便会生根发芽~因此便有了金庸笔下为叶二娘犯戒的玄慈,也有了红字中虔诚却因爱收到内心无尽自责的阿瑟神父了~有意思的是东西方文化对于罪的罚和对赎罪反省的宽恕却极其相似。基督教中,耶酥放逐亚当夏娃并令他们的后代永受疾苦,可是偏偏又出于怜悯派耶酥化为肉身,用自己的鲜血为代价洗涤人间的罪。佛教则讲求普渡众生,他在宣扬善恶到头终有报的同时,有说苦海无边,回头是岸,放下屠刀,立地成佛。有点殊途同归的意味。

2.关于爱:这点好像各自的老祖先都颇有见识的剔除了各自遵循自然科学的谚语。佛讲究,爱是缘,万物皆由缘起,世事互为因果。而在西方谚语中也强调爱是相互的。Love begets love.爱产生爱。Love is the mother of love.爱是爱的母亲。英语中很讲究博爱,在西方社会提倡的“自由、平等、博爱”(freedom,equality and fraternity),这在中国的谚语中似乎就鲜见了。虽然孟子宣扬的“老吾老,以及人之老;幼吾幼,以及人之幼”,其实也略带点无国界无边界的博爱思想,可是多数人从中看出的只是尊老爱幼罢了。

3.个人与集体:可能受到文艺复兴时期的唯意志论的人道主义思想的影响,西方文化在承认自然科学的同时也将自我的情感意志和个人本能无限放大了。于是英语中,Every man thinks his own geese swans.每个人都把自己的鹅想像成天鹅。Look after number one. 照顾自己。Self-preservation is the first law of nature.自我保护是自然第一法则。等等谚语充分证明了西方大片中的种种个人英雄主义行为实在不为怪。而相似的人不为己,天诛地灭,事不关己,高高挂起。等自我标榜的谚语在中国是富含贬义的。同时,在东方文化宣扬“自我只是社会这个大棋盘上的一颗棋子,个人必须服从社会规矩,一切以社会和集体的利益为重。因此反映在谚语上总是先人后己,善待别人。严于律己,宽于待人。将心比心,便是佛心。提倡集体主义的谚语更是比比皆是,尤其在解放后,这种集体主义与共产主义的不谋而合。早一些爱国谚语也相映而出。国家国家,没有国哪有家。国泰民可安,国富民也强。这不仅是西方以自我为核心的思想与中国个人服从集体思想的碰撞,也是中西方国家人民对待统治的国家机器,对待统治者之间战争态度不同的侧面例证。

中外谚语折射文化差异--之三

先补充一些有关谚语的知识。

谚语是熟语的一种。熟语在发达的语种中极其丰富。中文的熟语大致可以分为六类:

·成语--习用的固定词组或固定短语。成语的整体意思和各个词的意思不尽相同,大多含有潜在的意义。如胸有成竹,图穷匕见,杯弓蛇影等,在汉语中,四字成语是基本形态。

·警句和格言--是习用的名人之言,经典之语,具有深刻的教育意义。

·歇后语--是习用的譬解语。前半句是形象的譬喻,后半截是解语,用来直接说明事理。如,哑巴吃黄连,有苦说不出、泥菩萨过江,自身难保、孔子搬家尽是书(输)。

·俗语--是群众口头使用较多的固定常用语,特点是通俗化,口语化,也有一定的形象比喻。如,一个巴掌拍不响,打肿脸充胖子等。

·惯用语--习用的固定词组或短句。多三个字音节。如开后门、吃红灯、碰钉子、捣浆糊。

·谚语--是语义相对完整的固定句子。可以作为独立交际单位也可以作为句子中的成分。

相对英语中有许多有关熟语的学术用词:idiom,proverb, popular saying, popular phrase, set phrases, maxim,famous phrase等等。

idiom相当于成语,preverb相当于谚语,popular saying,popular phrase和set phrases相当于惯用语和俗语。maxim相当于格言,famous phrase为警句。

而对于Preverb的理解,也有不同。18世纪前的含义比现在广很多,而现在,的preverb只是指以句子形式出现,传统的,简短而凝练的常语,用来提供劝导或表达道德规范。

例:

成语-neither fish nor flesh非鱼非肉,不三不四,不伦不类

俗语-all your swans are geese希望成泡影

警句-knowledge is power只是就是力量

谚语-The tongue is not steel, yet is cuts.恶语伤人,谣言可以杀人

卢梭(J.Russell)说:“谚语是一个人的机智,所有人的智慧。”正反映出谚语是某个人在特定环境中创造出的惊人妙语。它的妙处就在于反映了群体的经验和智慧,因此才得到广泛传播,逐渐转化为谚语,这也是谚语的特点。即:智慧的闪光,经验的结晶,精美的语言,人生的启迪,无翼的飞扬,真实的写照。

法律和道德一向作为轨道社会的两条绳索。在法律还没有形成或者没有健全的时代里,道德就是维护社会秩序的唯一规范。我个人认为在中国5000多年的历史画卷中,传统道德是集中体现中国文化的一个窗口。所以在中外谚语折射文化差异之一和中外谚语折射文化差异之二中提到的“儒、道、佛”,都是深刻的影响到了中国甚至泛东方的道德和文化发展。

在中国,不同历史时期,道德的概念也有变化,不同的主体所受教育环境不同,其道德要求也存在差别。

中西传统道德观的同异

1.在歌颂勤俭,鼓励劳动,踏实工作方面,中外谚语表现出的道德规范是一样的。

“少 壮不努力,老大徒伤悲”和英语中的A lazy youth, a lousy age.(少年懒惰,晚年糟糕)相对应。“积财千万不如薄技在身”和英语中的A useful trade is a mine of gold.(有用的手艺是一座金矿)呼应。

英语谚语中表示节俭的,有Labour overcomes all things.(勤劳压倒一切。)Thrift is philosopher's stone.(节俭是点金石。)Frugality is the mother of liberality.(节俭是慷慨之母。)等等。而在汉语中表示节俭的成语谚语就更多了,这里不一一举例。

2.汉英谚语中对于表示谦虚,自知之明,诚实,名誉,知足等最基本道德品行方面的谚语其观点大多一致。

·例 如,与“谦受益,满招损”对应的英文中有“Humility often gains more than pride.”。与“人贵自知之明”相对应的有“He is not wise that is not wise for himself.(不自知者是不智的)”。另外汉语中有不少谚语对妄想在行家门前班门弄斧的人加以讽刺的,如“孔子面前读经书”,“关公面前耍大刀”,英语中也有Never offer to teach fish to swim.(决不要想教鱼如何游泳)。

·中英谚语对于名誉的重要性都各自珍重。“宁为玉碎,不为瓦全”、“宁愿折骨头,不愿败名声”。Take away my good name and take away my life.(取我好名声等于取我生命--有点侠客剑士“剑在人在,剑毁人亡”的意味)。·Faith moves a mountain.(忠诚移山)和The cross on the breast and the devil in the heart.(十字架挂胸前,魔鬼在心中)是分别表示诚实意思的褒贬两种谚语。汉语里的 “精诚所至,金石为开”和“满口仁义道德,满腹男盗女娼”与之对应。这里需要注意一点,西方谚语中的诚实是对主(“十字架”)的忠诚,而汉语中则提倡的是“仁义道德”。这也算是宗教和儒对西方和东方文化影响的印记。留心的话,在后面许多方面谚语的对比中,我们也可以发现或多或少这样的痕迹。

3.在表述友谊,友情方面的谚语中,东西方的差异开始明显化。


汉语中有这样的说法,“交一个朋友千难万易,得罪一个朋友三言两语”和英语中的A friend is not so soon gotten as lost.(交一个朋友没有失掉那么快)意思相同;“朋友易得,知己难求”就是A faithful friend is hard to find.最好的翻译。

·汉语中,朋友这个词本身就具有感情色彩(褒义),而在英语中似乎还有消极的意思,和许多用来形容朋友的消极的谚语。他们一边说着A man without a friend is only half a man.(没有朋友的人只算半个人),Friendships multiply joys and divide griefs.(友谊增添欢乐减轻痛苦)。是朋友和个人利益冲突时,又有了新的说法。Love your friend, but look after yourself.(爱朋友,但要照顾自己)Friends are thieves of time.(朋友是偷实践的贼)。

不难看出,从正反两种角度来看待朋友的利弊,有着辩证的味道。在西方的道德体系中,个人、自我永远是第一位的。西方友情观在拜金主义,功利主义的冲击下,友情是互惠互利的代名词,蒙着一层厚厚的功利注意色彩。He that has a full purse never wants a friend.(钱包丰厚的人从来不需要朋友),Hungerknows no friend.(饥饿不识朋友,即人在饥饿时就顾不到朋友),不仅如此,西方还讲究朋友落难时,千万不要伸出援手,以免殃及自身利益,如:Never catch at a falling knife or a falling friend.而中国文化传统中,特别是在儒家学说中,自身利益与国家、集体、家庭、朋友的利益比起来是小利益,这种文化氛围中,友情重于个人利益是公认的道德观。君子可以为朋友两肋插刀,可以“士为知己者死”,这也是西方思维无法理解的原因吧。

西方的友情观和东方推崇的“士”和“君子”的友情观完全相悖(“士”和“君子”本身也是儒的产物)。个人猜想会不会和中国自古有“连坐”一说有关--亲朋关联,一人得道鸡犬升天,而一人犯罪,株连九族。呵呵,瞎猜。

插句题外话,一著名美国影评人,将一个“第一次被重视、被当做人看待的”杀手转而为救人牺牲性命(典型的士为知己者死)看成是影片剧情的漏洞(曰:情感转变突然),就是出于他不理解东方的文化吧。自诩看过200~300部中国电影就可以对中国电影妄加评论指手划脚了?(呵呵,一肚子气,敬请留意近期推出《为香港电影鸣不平--观香港电影的秘密》)

4.关于帮助和救济的看法,东西文化的根基决定必然存在截然不同的观点。

中国的传统道德观念,讲究“礼、义、仁、至、信”。仁,就是要慈悲为怀,乐善好施;义,要仗义疏财,助人为乐。所以产生了“一人有难大家帮,一家有事百家忙”“互助互助,穷能变富”等无偿奉献的谚语。

·还有一种是临时借用,以解一时之须的情况,在汉语谚语中更是不求感激。虽然这一借一还的简单行为,其实安暗藏许多玄机。英文的谚语中就把这“玄机”公诸于世,毫不避讳。如借出者的担心,He that has but one eye must be afraid to lose it.(只有一只眼的人当然怕失去它,隐义为不借理所当然。)害怕借入者不能如约归还,Lend your horse for a long journey, you may have him returned with his skin.(借马给人去远行,可能还你一张皮)。甚至因为借贷过程产生的矛盾都有预料。Lend your money,and lise your friend.(借出你的钱,失去你的朋友)。还有些谚语直截了当劝人不要借钱和物给他人。Lend and lose, so play fools.(借出等于失去,所以装傻吧)。

当然,英语谚语中也不乏鄙视借债者的说法,He that borrows must pay with shame and loss.(借债的人必然要用耻辱或是损失偿还)。

其实在中国,借还过程中上述英语谚语中的问题也存在。只是中国的仁义教育中“黄金不为贵,仁义值千斤”直白的表达出借出者担忧是“不仁”(其实感觉应该是不信)之举,但借出者的担忧和常常遭受的损失又是不可否认的事实。所以,中国的谚语从借入者的角度强调“借债还钱,天经地义”“有借有还,再借不难”。甚至有些谚语还劝人还债要连本带利,如:“借人家一只鹅,还人家一峰驼”。个人感觉,在这个过程中,中国文化“义”字当先,宁可人负我,不可我负人,就算出借时也有担心、犹豫,可深入骨髓的传统精神和道德标准在左右着人们的行为。

·东西相较,说不上孰优孰劣,不过现代人的实际行为中传统的已所剩不多,更西化,被同化了。不论是否进步,至少说明,古代的信任体系比当代更有说服力。

5.金钱问题的纠缠,中国不愿看到的另一个原因是怕扯皮,拉不下脸。这就到了面子问题。

这个面子和上面讲到的名誉其实相似。名誉常常与道德连在一起,一个有道德的人也就会有好名声,通常也会有好面子。只是不尽然。中国讲的“面子”有受人尊重的意思,衣冠不整,行为不当等小节不影响名誉,可还是会失去面子。

·相关的谚语有褒有贬。“人怕不要脸,树怕剥掉皮”,“人不要脸,鬼都害怕”还有“死要面子活受罪”是说“打肿脸充胖子”型的。

·对于可能影响到面子的流言蜚语,国人害怕的心态也可以从谚语中见一斑。“谣言可以杀人”“棍棒伤皮肉,恶语伤人心”,上世纪二、三十年代红极一时的电影明星阮玲玉也以死回应“人言可畏”。

·西方的传统道德观念认为,名誉很重要,人应该检点自己的行为,但只要自己不危害社会和他人,不违犯法律,他人如何评价自己并不十分重要。所以在英语的谚语中,同样的“棍棒”杀伤力骤减。Sticks and stones may break my bones,but words will never hurt me.(棍棒石头可能打断我的骨头,但话语决不会伤害我),其实说白了就是难听的话不回伤筋动骨Hard words break no bones.

·比较来看,中国人要面子,而且很在乎周围人的评价,追其根源可能因为“儒”的影响下,人和环境社会是一体的,人只有在社会中得到的评估(好与坏)才是判断名誉面子的标准。同样,对于西方谚语中不在乎他人看法、社会评价的特点,不难看出个人主义、个人至上的影子。

·另外,在中国,社会舆论和评价有时还是一道捍卫道德的无形的墙,对违犯道德的坏人坏事起着抑制,警惕的作用。传统文化中的“见义勇为,打抱不平、眼睛里揉不得沙子”都是“人言”正面作用的例证。

西方文化中,按照基督教的说法,人人都有罪。一个人想要抨击别人的罪,首先要想到自己也有罪。“不要评断别人,上帝就不审断你们”。体现在谚语中,Physician, heal thyself.(医生,先治治你自己)。而且,英语文化中把搬弄是非的人看得比贼还坏。A tattler is worse than a thief.对你说是非的人也会说你的是非。Who chatters to you, will chatter of you.

其实换一个角度来看,他们“不说是非”,不只是虔诚于上帝,更多的是出于尊重隐私。在西方,隐私是凌驾于道德之上的,个人隐私神圣不可侵犯。(注意,还是强调“个人”隐私)。而中国传统文化中,规矩的、有道德的人没有什么见不得人的事。“君子坦荡荡,小人常戚戚”“明人不做暗事”。做了见不得人的事,是无需隐瞒也瞒不住的“肚里没邪事,不怕冷风吹”“若要人不知,除非己莫为”。

总体上来说,中国和西方谚语在传统道德观念上存在的同异有以下几点:

1. 表达传统道德的基础(真善美)的谚语基本相同,这也是全人类共同追求的道德标准;

2. 中国文化受到儒家思想的深刻影响,并在汉语谚语中体现出来的传统道德观念上留下烙印;而西方谚语同样无可避免的受到西方宗教(如基督教)的影响,例如在表示忠诚的谚语中The cross on the breast and the devil in the heart.(十字架挂胸前,魔鬼在心中),十字架代表主,忠诚的对象也指向了“上帝”。

3. 汉语的谚语中体现了以“仁义”为核心的儒家思想,并以此潜意识的规范着人们的观念和行为。西方的传统道德无法避及的受到了拜金主义,个人主义的冲击。在谚语中体现出来的是,自己最重要,不要帮助别人和朋友,以免祸及自身。这种自私自利的观念是中国传统道德所不耻的。

4. 很重要的一点,汉语谚语表现出来的人是社会人,他们在社会环境中于朋友,亲人,周围邻人甚至帮助和需要帮助的人都产生关系,一荣俱荣,他们也受到环境的制约,如社会舆论,社会人的看法,议论,甚至流言蜚语。在这种社会环境中维护名誉和面子都必须“君子坦荡荡”不做见不得人的事,也没有什么好隐藏的私密。相对来看,西方谚语中的人是个人的人,是英雄的人,是隐私的人。他们不屑向周围的别人求救(如借钱),也不愿意帮助别人或借出钱物给别人,他们更不在乎别人的看法,只要遵循自己的标准就可以了。西方谚语中的名誉和道德有关,可面子似乎就和道德无关了,最重要的影响因素是个人隐私,即隐私至上。

5. 不过,这样不难发现,中国人活得有价值(在集体中体现价值),但也活得累,生活在无数双眼睛里,无数张嘴下。西方名言曰“走自己的路,让别人去说吧”,或许有时不必太拘于所有细节反而容易成功。